EPA Final Tier 4 (FT4) compliant engines with maximum fluid efficiency
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Environment Canada requires all off-road diesel engines with 25 hp or more to meet stringent FT4 emissions regulations. John Deere uses the most efficient and cost-effective solution for the tractor package to meet emissions requirements at each horsepower level. The 5M delivers a hassle-free emissions solution that allows faster work and operation with ease.
The engine powering the 5M is EPA certified Tier Level 4. This is achieved through a combination of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using diesel exhaust fluid (DEF, or urea).
Several defining features on the 5M maximize the performance and reliability of the emissions package. A completely shielded DOC/SCR not only protects essential components from damage, it also keeps out dirt and debris. The well-packaged and tightly organized circulation system means there is more room to work around the tractor.
PowerTech PWL Final Tier 4 technology
Key components of the emissions system include:
John Deere has chosen to utilize an exhaust filter to reduce particulate material so the engine can operate at a level which produces less NOx. With less NOx created, less DEF is required to treat. The result is improved total fluid economy (diesel and DEF).
The engine is programmed to aggressively respond to changes in power needs, which can temporarily increase particulate matter. Since the exhaust filter removes particulate matter instead of the engine, the engine is left free to do what it is designed to do – deliver all of the power, torque, plus transient response needed.
DEF is an ISO 22241 standard aqueous urea solution consisting of 32.5 percent urea and has a freezing point of -11°C (12°F). A heated DEF tank keeps the customer in the field longer even when the temperatures drop below freezing. The DEF tank header is integrated with a temperature sensor, and plumbed engine coolant lines are used to promote thawing and prevent freezing in the tank during operation.
DEF tank fill location with optional fuel tank guarding
Mounted near the DEF tank, the electronic control unit (ECU)-controlled supply module draws diesel exhaust fluid from the storage tank and provides a pressurized flow to the dosing module. When the ignition key is off, the supply module pump will reverse direction to return any accumulated fluid back to the tank. The supply module is also fitted with a replaceable filter to prevent contaminants from entering the dosing lines. Both the supply module and dosing lines are electrically heated and controlled by the ECU to determine when DEF dosing can begin.
The dosing module is cooled by engine coolant and used to inject DEF at a pressure of 130 psi (900 kPa, 9 bar) into the decomposition tube. A harness is connected to the dosing valve that relays the needed DEF to inject based upon the amount of NOx exiting the DOC measured from the NOx tube sensor.
The decomposition tube is the internal mixing device used to circulate DEF with engine exhaust prior to entering the SCR/AOC after-treatment device.
To reduce the NOx, DEF is injected into the exhaust stream. When the exhaust gases combine with the DEF in the SCR catalyst, the NOx is broken down into nitrogen and water vapor.
SCR location on the 5ML Tractor
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
EGR reduces the high temperatures where these compounds are formed in the engine cylinders by replacing excess oxygen with a prescribed amount of cooled exhaust gas.
Exhaust gases contain more carbon dioxide than oxygen. The EGR valve, in conjunction with the venturi tube, and engine control unit (ECU), allow a controlled amount of exhaust gas to enter the intake manifold to mix with the incoming fresh air.
Replacing excess oxygen with cooled exhaust gas leads to:
- Lower combustion temperatures, creating less NOx.
In addition, EGR allows for:
- Advanced timing
- Optimal engine performance
- Maximum fuel economy
For added performance and efficiency, the engine passes the exhaust gases through an EGR cooler before it enters the engine.
Exhaust airflow enters into the EGR cooler from the exhaust manifold near the turbocharger. Based on engine load, air temperatures, and rpm, the ECU opens or closes the EGR valve, allowing a measured percentage of exhaust gas to enter the intake manifold. The gases mix with the rest of the incoming air from the turbocharger and aftercooler before entering the cylinders.
The PowerTech™ PWL 4.5L utilizes one turbocharger — a fixed geometry turbocharger. Fresh air is first drawn into the low-pressure fixed geometry turbocharger and compressed to a higher pressure. The compressed air is then routed to the charge air cooler and then to the intake manifold.
Benefits of air-to-air aftercooling
- Lowers the intake manifold air temperature
- Provides more efficient cooling while reducing temperatures for greater engine reliability
- Higher volume of air flows into the cylinders
- Engine is capable of meeting the increasing horsepower demands
Combustion process with externally cooled EGR
- According to engine operating conditions, the recirculated exhaust gases reduce the oxygen portion in the intake air to approximately 20 percent. Without any increase of the charge air pressure, the oxygen rate is not high enough to ensure a complete combustion of the fuel injected at high engine loads.
- Fuel-efficient combustion is achieved, because sufficient oxygen is provided.
A restrained, cooler combustion is realized, since the typical hot combustion process, which is generated by an oxygen surplus, is dampened by the inert exhaust gases. Hence, NOx emissions are reduced.
For more information regarding EPA regulations and the technology behind John Deere Integrated Emissions Control systems please visit the following link:
Low profile standard open operator station (OOS)
The standard OOS on 5ML Tractors was designed for low clearance applications. It features a low-profile seat, a smaller-diameter steering wheel, and low-profile rear-mounted rollover protective structure (ROPS). Combined with the sloping hood, this is beneficial to the customer’s visibility to the front of the tractor.
Standard OOS low-profile seat
All of the most crucial operator controls are conveniently located within arms’ reach on the right-hand console control pod. The engine throttle control, selective control valve (SCV) levers, power take-off (PTO) engagement, and hitch-lift control levers are grouped together. On the 5ML, this control pod is positioned inside the right side fender, protecting these controls from low hanging crops inside orchard rows.
Color-coded bands on the selective control valve (SCV) levers correspond with the color on the rear SCVs, making it easy for any operator to determine which lever operates which rear SCV.
The 5ML tractor also offers full coverage fenders to minimize crop disturbance, especially in orchards or tree nut applications.
The foldable ROPS on the 5ML Tractor has a unique design and is seven inches lower at maximum height than the standard 5M tractors.
The shifter linkages are tighter to offer a more accurate shift pattern, which translates to a crisper throw between gears.
- Steering wheel
5M Tractors also include the following features:
- Retractable seat belts
- Rear certified ROPS for OOS tractors
- Key-switch interlock prevents bypass starting
- Audible and visual power take-off (PTO) warning alerts when the operator leaves the seat with the PTO engaged
- Positive park position prevents the tractor from moving when the engine is off
- Four amber turn-signal/flashing warning lights for road transport (these are break-away)
- Slow-moving vehicle (SMV) sign alerts other road users during transport
- Safety decals keep safety in the minds of new and experienced operators
- Left- and right-hand steps provide easy and convenient access from both sides of the tractor
- The 5M fuel system is fully grounded to meet safety and fuel fill regulation requirements
- For convenience of operation, the fuel and diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) fill are both on the same side with clearly marked and color coded caps. The DEF tank has a capacity of 9.5-L (2.5 gal.), which is more than enough to sustain proper tractor operation and fuel treatment for more than one full tank of diesel. A field-installed lockable fuel cap is offered for protection and peace of mind.
Gear and range shift levers are located to the right of the operator. The gear-shift lever is easy to reach and the less-used range lever is shorter. Unique knobs also make it easier to distinguish between the two.
OOS range and gear shift lever
A foot throttle with a platform pedal is located on the right side of the operator. The pedal is positioned for ease of use, yet does not clutter the floor. The hand throttle is easily accessible on the right hand console.
Engaged by either foot, the differential lock pedal is placed on the floor.
Mechanical front-wheel drive (MFWD) controls
All four-wheel drive (4WD) axles are equipped with the engage-on-the-go MFWD. This toggle switch is now located on the right-hand console.
Differential lock button
When the tractor is used in applications requiring the clutch and brake pedals to be used frequently, the operator will see the benefit of the suspended pedals.
On tractors equipped with the 16F/16R or 32F/16R transmission, the electrohydraulic forward/reverse direction lever is located on the left-hand side of the instrument console, connected to the steering column. There is also a guard for the reverser lever. Operated with the left-hand finger, the right hand is free to simultaneously run the loader, hitch, or hand throttle.
Left hand reverser with guard
3-point hitch controls
Mechanical hitch controls are available on the standard open operator station.
The 5ML features electrohydraulic PTO engagement.
The push/pull knob on open station tractors is conveniently located beside the hand throttle on the right-hand side of the operator. When the PTO is engaged, a light on the instrument panel will illuminate and PTO speed is indicated by target bars.
Enhancing operator safety, the tractor does not start with the PTO engaged. An alarm sounds if the operator attempts to leave the seat with the PTO engaged. The PTO shaft is protected by a hinged shield.
The color-coded bands on the levers which control dual and triple rear SCVs correspond to the color of the dust cap and the SCV valve they control.
Lighting controls – Multi-position dial
The five-position lighting package is straightforward with the lighting control switch on the right side of the steering column. The switch positions are: off, warning, work light, transport 1 (warning and high-beam headlights), and transport 2 (warning and headlights). A turn-signal lever is located on the left side of the steering column for quick and easy use.
Power bulge and torque reserve pull through the tough spots
Putting more power to the ground translates to increased productivity in demanding conditions. Simply put, torque is the useable power that can be achieved. More torque leads to more lugging ability which helps the operator be more productive.
5M Final Tier 4 (FT4) engines feature up to a 4 percent power bulge when put under load. The power bulge feature of the electronically controlled engine delivers additional horsepower as engine rpm drops below rated speed. Additionally, a 30 percent torque rise provides the force that maintains horsepower as engine rpm drops below rated speed.
When the tractor is under load, power bulge and torque rise work together to get through the tough spots without having to downshift. Horsepower and torque are mathematically related.
As rpm drops, the only way to maintain or increase horsepower is to provide additional torque. The output horsepower is greater than or equal to rated horsepower as the engine is pulled down to 1750 rpm.
The peak torque rise also occurs near the rated economy power take-off (EPTO) speed.
5M power curve summary
5M torque curve summary
16F/16R PowrReverser™ transmission
The PowrReverser transmission provides 16F/16R speeds. This transmission comes standard with a dual-speed 540/540 Economy power take-off (PTO), and is ideal for applications requiring frequent directional changes.
Hydraulic wet forward and reverse clutches maximize durability and outlast the life of any dry clutch. When tractors are run by multiple operators with a variety of experience levels, a wet clutch is the best way to maintain transmission integrity and performance while decreasing clutch replacement costs.
Two platform-mounted levers offer easy and comfortable shifting for a pleasant operator experience. The gear-shift lever is easy to reach and the less-used range lever is shorter. Unique knobs make it easy to distinguish between the two.
The forward lever selects one of four speeds, all synchronized shifts for on-the-go shifting with the use of the clutch. The rear lever selects ranges A, B, C, or D. Ranges C and D are fully synchronized. That means, when upshifting, operators can move from range C to D without stopping the tractor. On the downshift, operators can move from D all of the way to B without stopping.
Maximum productivity is achieved with clutchless hydraulic shifting between forward and reverse and is ideal for loader work and any other applications that require frequent directional switches in tight spaces. An electrohydraulic fingertip directional lever control allows the operator to effortlessly switch directions with a small finger motion.
The control is located on the left side of the instrument console and selects forward, reverse, and neutral positions. It also allows the operator to steer and shift direction with the left hand, freeing the right hand to operate other tractor controls, such as the loader, rear implements, or hand throttle. The PowrReverser™ has a built-in engagement override valve for additional safety. This valve requires the clutch pedal to be depressed one time after each engine start before the transmission will begin to operate normally, giving the operator another opportunity to put all focus on the tractor.
**A neutral start switch requires the directional lever be in the neutral position to start the engine.**
The speed of directional changes can be adjusted to the operator's preference or application demands with the field-installed infinitely variable control kit.
16F/16R transmission includes:
- Wet clutch
- Platform-mounted shift levers (4 gears, 4 ranges)
- Left-hand reverser
- Constant-mesh helical-cut gears
- Pressure-lubricated top shaft
- Positive park pawl
- Neutral start switch
All tractors have E-PTO (a fuel saving feature) that allows customers to operate rear implements at 540 PTO rpm but at lower engine rpm. The result is lower engine vibration, reduced noise, less wear and tear on the engine, reduced fuel consumption and increased operator comfort.
**See PTO Functional area for more information on EPTO**
Automotive-style LCD instrument cluster
Controlling the 5ML is easier and brighter than ever before. A fresh new instrument cluster displays information in a crisp, vibrant, and useful array. A larger alternator (OOS: 90 amp,) produces plenty of power for all components.
This window into tractor functionality and diagnostics provides ample information. Indicators, warning lights, and even the gauges are clear and bright. The roll-mode function now provides operators with crucial onboard diagnostics. Engine hours, PTO speed, ground speed, high-low indicator, forward, neutral, and reverse, are all visible at the same time. There is a light-out indicator for trailer light, turn light, and hazard light bulbs which is driven by new software. A straightforward layout and sleek design requires no customer interface. When operating the PTO, there are clearly presented PTO target bars to indicate the correct PTO speed.
PTO target bars
There are daytime and nighttime modes which are based on the position of the light switch. The mode actually adjusts the backlight levels of the display for optimum visibility. A new spring-loaded regeneration inhibit switch conveniently returns back to automatically on during every cycle of the ignition key.